germanicus and arminius

The Roman soldiers involved on the battlefield honored Tiberius as Imperator, and raised a pile of arms as a trophy with the names of the defeated tribes inscribed beneath them. Then Germanicus returned to Mainz together with Segestes and his resisting daughter Thusnelda, Arminius’ wife. Germanicus in turn ordered Piso's recall to Rome, although this action was probably beyond his authority. His death has been attributed to poison by ancient sources, but that was never proven. [44], Then Germanicus ordered Caius Silius to march against the Chatti with a mixed force of 3,000 cavalry and 33,000 infantry and lay waste to their territory, while he himself, with a larger army, invaded the Marsi for the third time and devastated their land. Germanicus is painted as a competent leader able to handle the masses whereas Tiberius is indecisive and envious. 00 49 (0) 54 68 / 92 04 0 Fax      00 49 (0) 54 68 / 92 04 45E-Mail [email protected], Getragen von der Stiftung der Sparkassen im Osnabrücker Land und dem Landkreis Osnabrück, Der "Block-Blog" - Teil 4: Konservierung und Restaurierung. Germanicus subdued the Chatti and liberated the Cheruscan »princeps« Segestes who was being besieged by his son-in-law Arminius. https://www.patreon.com/history_uncoveredGermanicus was perhaps the most popular general of the Roman Empire. Jan Cremer tribune Germanicus genomineerd voor mooiste tribune Noord Nederland. [28] The next year in August, Augustus died and on 17 September the Senate met to confirm Tiberius as princeps. Germanicus coordinated a land and riverine offensive, with troops marching eastward across the Rhine, and sailing from the North Sea up the Ems River in order to attack the Bructeri and Cherusci. Tacitus says this shows the true grief that the people of Rome felt, and this also shows that by this time the people already knew the proper way to commemorate dead princes without an edict from a magistrate. [1] To the Roman people, Germanicus was the Roman equivalent of Alexander the Great due to the nature of his death at a young age, his virtuous character, his dashing physique, and his military renown. The two generals crossed the Rhine, made various excursions into enemy territory and, in the beginning of autumn, recrossed the river. Late in 14, the Roman prince Germanicus resumed the offensive, which provoked a reaction from the Germanic leader Arminius, who was able to unite several tribes. Tacitus described Germanicus as a fine general who was kind and temperate, saying that his early death had taken a great ruler from Rome. Hermann had lived in Rome as a hostage in his youth, where he had received a military education, and obtained Roman citizenship as well as the status of equestrian(petty noble) before returning to Germania and driving the Romans out. [92] His life and character have been portrayed in many works of art, the most notable of which include: First campaign against the Germanic tribes, Second campaign against the Germanic tribes, Third campaign against the Germanic tribes, Tiberius had to adopt Germanicus first because his own adoption by Augustus resulted in the loss of, Tacitus claims that the Romans won the battle at, Captives featured in the triumph include: "Segimuntus, the son of Segestes, the chief of the Cherusci, and his sister, named Thusnelda, the wife of Armenius, who led on the Cherusci when they treacherously attacked Quintilius Varus, and even to this day continues the war; likewise his son Thumelicus, a boy three years old, as also Sesithacus, the son of, That he violated this order is possibly confirmed by the fact that the trip is omitted in Germanicus', Despite the exhaustive list only two statutes are mentioned: that of Piso violating Germanicus', "Archaeological Traces of the Pannonian Revolt 6–9 AD:Evidence and Conjectures", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Germanicus&oldid=999385188, Short description is different from Wikidata, Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from The American Cyclopaedia, Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from The American Cyclopaedia with a Wikisource reference, Wikipedia articles with CANTIC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with PLWABN identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SELIBR identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with Trove identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, After 20 years of service, a full discharge was given, but after 16 years an immunity from military tasks, except to take part in actions (. He had dealt a significant blow to Rome's enemies, quelled an uprising of troops, and returned lost standards to Rome. He arrived at Nicopolis near the site of the Battle of Actium, where he took up his second consulship on 18 January AD 18. Germanicus is een club met een rijke, ruim 100 jarige historie. [8][9][10][11] The couple had nine children: Nero Julius Caesar; Drusus Caesar; Tiberius Julius Caesar (not to be confused with emperor Tiberius); a child of unknown name (normally referred to as Ignotus); Gaius the Elder; Gaius the Younger (the future emperor "Caligula"); Agrippina the Younger (the future empress); Julia Drusilla; and Julia Livilla. The fighting lasted for two days, with neither side achieving a decisive victory. In leading his troops across the Rhine without recourse to Tiberius, he contradicted the advice of Augustus to keep that river as the boundary of the empire, and opened himself to potential doubts from Tiberius about his motives in taking such independent action. [73][77], On the day of Germanicus' death his sister Livilla gave birth to twins by Drusus. [52] Tacitus attributed the recall to Tiberius' jealousy of the glory Germanicus had acquired, and, with some bitterness, claims that Germanicus could have completed the conquest of Germania had he been given full operational independence. Later in the year, Tiberius left Lepidus in command of Siscia and Silvanus at Sirmium. [26][27], On 23 October AD 12, Tiberius held a triumph for his victory over the Pannonians and Dalmatians, which he had postponed on account of the defeat of Varus at Teutoburg Forest. This page was last edited on 9 January 2021, at 22:22. After briefly hearing both sides, Tiberius deferred the case to the Senate, making no effort to hide his deep anger toward Piso. On the way back to their winter quarters at Castra Vetera, they pushed successfully through the opposing tribes (Bructeri, Tubantes, and Usipetes) between the Marsi and the Rhine. During this period, Germanicus' detachments were in action against the Mazaei, whom he defeated. As proconsul, Germanicus was dispatched with Tiberius to defend the empire against the Germans in AD 11. The pacification of the Breuci, with their large population and resources, was a significant victory for the Romans, who would be reinforced by eight cohorts of Breuci auxiliaries towards the end of the war. Arminius, also known as Armin or Hermann (b. There he visited the site of Troy and the oracle of Apollo Claros near Colophon. Arminius was a chief of the Cherusci. Both the armies of the Lower and Upper Rhine had returned to order. The story is told by the Roman historian Tacitus. Due to his prominence as heir to the imperial succession, he is depicted in many works of art. As for his popularity, he was popular enough that the mutinous legions of the Rhine attempted to proclaim him emperor in AD 14; however, he remained loyal and led them against the German tribes instead. [41], Germanicus' divisions met up to the north, and ravaged the countryside between the Ems and the Lippe, and penetrated to the Teutoburg Forest, a mountain forest in Western Germany situated between these two rivers. Arminius and his uncle Inguiomer were both wounded in the battle but evaded capture. [79], Piso was rumored to have been responsible for his death. Germanicus' troops released Segestes and took his pregnant daughter, Arminius' wife Thusnelda, into captivity. The riotous army figures into the unpredictable wrath of the Roman people giving Tiberius the chance to reflect on what it means to lead. The divisions under Lepidus and Silvanus practically exterminated the Perustae and Daesitiate in their mountain strongholds. Rome regarded Germany as a wild territory of forests and swamps, with little wealth compared to territories Rome already had. He had captured a few important prisoners, but Arminius was still at large. The legacy left by Augustus to the troops was to be doubled and discharged. When news of the mutiny reached the army of the Upper Rhine under Gaius Silius (the Legions II Augusta, XIII Gemina, XVI Gallica, and XIV Gemina) a meeting was held to meet their demands. Also suspected of connivance in his death was Tiberius' chief advisor, Sejanus, who would, in the 20s, create an atmosphere of fear in Roman noble and administrative circles by the use of treason trials and the role of delatores, or informers. Germanicus was born on 24 May 15 BC. Tacitus says the purpose of those campaigns was to avenge the defeat of Varus at the Battle of Teutoburg Forest, and not to expand Roman territory. There, Germanicus and some of his men visited the site of the disastrous Battle of the Teutoburg Forest, and began burying the remains of the Roman soldiers that had been left in the open. [28] They had not been paid the bonuses promised them by Augustus and, when it became clear a response from Tiberius was not forthcoming, they revolted. "[48][49], Germanicus sent some troops back to the Rhine, with some of them taking the land route, but most of them took the fast route and traveled by boat. It serves to contrast the "old-fashioned" Republican values assigned to Germanicus, and the imperial values possessed by Tiberius. He then sent a deputy to subdue the remaining districts and returned to Tiberius. [66][69], In the midst of this feud, Germanicus became ill and despite the fact Piso had removed himself to the port of Seleucia, he was convinced that Piso was somehow poisoning him. From there Piso left for Syria where he immediately began replacing the officers with men loyal to himself in a bid to win the loyalty of his soldiers. [43], Germanicus commanded eight legions with Gallic and Germanic auxiliary units overland across the Rhine, up the Ems and Weser rivers as part of his last major campaign against Arminius in AD 16. Germanicus sent Piso a letter formally renouncing their friendship (amicitia). Again he marched back victorious and at the direction of Tiberius, accepted the title of Imperator. Privacy Statement [54], At the beginning of AD 17, Germanicus returned to the capital and on May 26 he celebrated a triumph for his victories over the Germans. As a boy, Arminius is kidnapped from Germania and raised to be a Roman soldier; years later, he must choose between the Empire and the land he calls home. Yet, in a show of clemency not unlike that of the emperor, the Senate had Piso's property returned and divided equally between his two sons, on condition that his daughter Calpurnia be given 1,000,000 sesterces as dowry and a further 4,000,000 as personal property. In the service of the Romans he had obtained both citizenship and equestrian rank. As part of the succession arrangements, Augustus adopted Tiberius on 26 June AD 4, but first required him to adopt Germanicus, thus placing him next in the line of succession after Tiberius. The revenue from the new province was enough to make up the difference lost from lowering the sales tax. 19 n.Chr.) [87], Suetonius was an equestrian who held administrative posts during the reigns of Trajan and Hadrian. [16][14], Roman forces took the initiative in AD 9, and pushed into Dalmatia. The battle marked the end of a three-year series of campaigns by Germanicus in Germania. Tiberius made allowances for Piso to summon witnesses of all social orders, including slaves, and he was given more time to plea than the prosecutors, but it made no difference: before the trial was over Piso died, ostensibly by suicide, but Tacitus supposes Tiberius may have had him murdered before he could implicate the emperor in Germanicus' death. Despite his defeat, Arminius still held a high position among the Germanic tribes. Arminius initially lured Germanicus' cavalry into a trap and inflicted minor casualties, until successful fighting by the Roman infantry caused the Germanic peoples to break and flee into the forest. Immediately Germanicus despatched troops to recover it. Germanicus complied, moving Vonones to Cilicia, both to please Artabanus and to insult Piso, with whom Vonones was friendly. [2] In book eight of his Natural History, Pliny connects Germanicus, Augustus, and Alexander as fellow equestrians: when Alexander's horse Bucephalus died he named a city, Bucephalia, in his honor. The son of Nero Claudius Drusus and Antonia Minor, Germanicus was born into a … [42] He made his way into the heartland of the Cherusci. [23][24][25][26] He continued to advocate for defendants in court during his consulship, a popular move reminiscent of his previous work defending the accused in front of Augustus. 18 v.Chr. [note 6] Germanicus was given imperium maius (extraordinary command) over the other governors and commanders of the area he was to operate; however, Tiberius had replaced the governor of Syria with Gnaeus Calpurnius Piso, who was meant to be his helper (adiutor), but turned out to be hostile. While Tiberius negotiated the terms of surrender, Germanicus was sent on a punitive expedition across the surrounding territory, during which he forced the surrender of the fortified town of Arduba and surrounding towns. They destroyed a Roman army in the Battle of the Teutoburg Forest. 18 BC/17 BC in Magna Germania; d. AD 21 in Germania) was a chieftain of the Cherusci. Less monumental, Augustus' horse received a funeral mound, which Germanicus wrote a poem about. Germanicus stated that he did not want any prisoners, as the extermination of the Germanic tribes was the only conclusion he saw for the war. After Germanicus arrived, the soldiers listed their complaints to him and attempted to proclaim him emperor. Germanicus pursued a career as a military officer. [28], In early spring AD 15, Germanicus crossed the Rhine and struck the Chatti. Een club met passie en prestatie. [note 7] Germanicus entered the province in his capacity as proconsul without first seeking permission to do so. After the construction of a transport fleet Germanicus returned once again to the troubled area, fought a battle near the river Weser and sustained high casualties, also due to severe autumn storms during the retreat. Livillawas his younger sister and the future Emperor Claudius was his younger brother. Bato the Daesitiate withdrew from Pannonia to Dalmatia, where he occupied the mountains of Bosnia and began conducting counter-attacks, most likely against the indigenous people who sided with the Romans. The Battle of Idistaviso, sometimes known as a first Battle of Minden or Battle of the Weser River, was fought in 16 AD between Roman legions commanded by Roman emperor Tiberius' heir and adopted son Germanicus, and an alliance of Germanic peoples commanded by Arminius. He sacked their capital Mattium (modern Maden near Gudensberg), pillaged their countryside, then returned to the Rhine. CVV Germanicus wenst jullie allen, ondanks alle maatregelen, fijne feestdagen en een gezond 2021. In winter, Germanicus returned to Rome, where he was, after five mandates as quaestor and despite never having been aedile or praetor, appointed consul for the year AD 12. That day the Senate also dispatched a delegation to Germanicus' camp to send its condolences for the death of his grandfather and to grant him proconsular imperium. On the other side, pro-Roman Cherusci, like Segestes, the father of Thusnelda and Segimuntos, were among the invited guests of the event. He returned to Syria by summer, where he found that Piso had either ignored or revoked his orders to the cities and legions. November 2020 Artabanus sent an envoy to Germanicus requesting that Vonones be moved further from Armenia as to not incite trouble there. [note 2] Germanicus married Augustus' granddaughter, Agrippina the Elder, probably the next year, to further strengthen his ties to the imperial family. Tacitus says that the battle was a Roman victory:[44][45] .mw-parser-output .templatequote{overflow:hidden;margin:1em 0;padding:0 40px}.mw-parser-output .templatequote .templatequotecite{line-height:1.5em;text-align:left;padding-left:1.6em;margin-top:0}. Augustus, in 13 CE, appointed Germanicus as proconsul of Germania Inferior, Germania Superior, and entire Gaul and he commanded eight legions of the Roman army. His paternal grandmother was Livia, who had divorced his grandfather, Tiberius Claudius Nero around 24 years before Germanicus' birth, and was married to the emperor Augustus. Probably for the same reason, Augustus arranged for his granddaughter Vipsania Agrippina  to marry Germanicus. He shared the consulship with Gaius Fonteius Capito. Arminius ’ wife by the Pannonians and Dalmatians - Arminius ordered his to. Procession statues of Germanicus ' triumph to 1 January AD 15, Germanicus ' cavalry a... 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To marry Germanicus released Segestes and his resisting daughter Thusnelda, her little son Thumelicus and her brother were. Were no procession statues of Germanicus worden deze uitgereikt op de jaarlijkse ledenvergadering maar deze is i.v.m second.! Early spring AD 15 Germanicus returned to order Irmin ) meaning `` great '' ( cf Tiberius. Artabanus and to insult Piso, acting under orders from emperor Tiberius as Germanicus soldiers their! Wrath of the Romans himself and Agrippina the Elder, a granddaughter of Augustus ( not the actual )! As accusations accumulated, it was here at the barrier and receiving thousands of.! And Illyricum, the soldiers listed their complaints to him and attempted to him! Prisoners were paraded through the streets of Rome [ 8 ], Book 1 of extensively! By Tacitus is one of the Adriatic Sea to Greece 's recall Rome... Soldiers ’ mortal remains which were still fresh among the Germanic tribes vital to..

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