world climate and climate change notes

CBSE quick revision note for class-11 Mathematics, Physics, Chemistry, Biology, and other subject are very helpful to revise the whole syllabus during exam days. Download revision notes for   World Climate and Climate Change class 11 Notes Geography and score high in exams. Thus, ultra violet rays do not reach the earth’s surface. %���� The emission of CO2 comes mainly from fossil fuel combustion (oil, gas, and coal). The annual rainfall in this climate is considerably less than that in Af and Am climate types and is variable also. Ozone which absorbs ultra violet radiation in the stratosphere is very effective in absorbing terrestrial radiation when it is present in the lower troposphere. WWF is challenging cities to transition toward 100 percent renewable energy and address local climate threats by implementing practical measures that improve air quality, protect water supplies and reduce urban flooding. The gases that absorb long wave radiation are called greenhouse gases. The seven warmest years during the 1856-2000 were recorded in the last decade. So, deforestation 5. due to changes in land use, also increases the concentration of Co2 The time taken for atmospheric CO2 to adjust to changes in sources to sinks is 20-50 years. Tropical Wet Climate (Af) 1. The maximum temperature on any day is around 30 C while the minimum temperature is around 20C. Climate is the pattern of the weather conditions over a long period of time for a large area. The ice cap climate (EF) The ice climate (EF) occurs over interior Greenland and Antarctica. Nevertheless, the adverse effect due to global warming will adversely affect the life supporting system. occur in the large ; continental area in the I northern hemisphere between 40 -70 north latitudes in Europe, j Asia and North America. Revising notes in exam days is on of the best tips recommended by teachers during exam days. Doubling of concentration of CO2 over pre-industrial level is used as an index for estimating the changes in climate in climatic models. 4. The major areas are the Amazon Basin in South America, western equatorial Africa and the islands of East Indies. This allows the ultra violet rays to pass through the troposphere. endobj It’s the Paris Climate Agreement, of course, aimed at “saving the planet.” Raising the obvious question: Is global warming for real? x��][o�ƒ~����F�D��l^-l�>��沱����H\�F:3����q���j^�9S�N�QU_�^�5o���f]Vm���wm[V7�U�Ǜ�w��z���~�[y�l˶�۞��?\���������4TA��� �4T�?����my]���]��?���+}�IJ�Q|]�����@�I�i����������Up���?~��#a���}׶w��z1y?���c�y��tG& �������!��!�|ҁʏ->3�5�>4��_�ݿ���y��I������_�~r�W�/�~��ř�]��t�kwl�>l>诿H�:2a�|��:1��?����$^_Nβ��珴�_.>�~���Ƌ�"��c㝜�U?��O��d�Qƨ8���܌�nF鱋IД;����䚤aԏM��=��7�ϛ�N��痬��p�鱦���mM�)���'�� ?T��v�L0�]��!��MH�k �����-Qa�ܝ. 4 0 obj Part One Climate Change 1 Syllabus 1.0 - Introduction 2.0 - The Earth's Natural Greenhouse Effect 3.0 - The Greenhouse Gases 4.0 - CO 2 Emissions 5.0 - The Earth's Carbon Reservoirs 6.0 - Carbon Cycling: Some Examples 7.0 - Climate and Weather 8.0 - Global Wind Systems 9.0 - Clouds, Storms and Climates al 39). The revision notes covers all important formulas and concepts given in the chapter. Ozone occurs in the stratosphere where ultra-violet rays convert oxygen into ozone. Empirical classification is based on observed data, particularly on temperature and precipitation. Precipitation occurs throughout the year. 3 0 obj The increasing trend in the concentration of GHGs in the atmosphere may, in the long run, warm up the earth. Climate change poses an urgent threat demanding decisive action. Cold snow forest climates are divided into two types: (i) Df- cold climate with humid winter; (ii) (ii) Dw- cold climate with dry winter. There’s another global disaster we also need to try to prevent: climate change. The rainfall in both the climates is highly variable. Barring action on a sweeping scale, the report said, climate change will accelerate the danger of severe food shortages. The 1990s recorded the warmest temperature of the century and some of the worst floods around the world. Water and Climate Change. 3. Forests and oceans are the sinks for the carbon dioxide. new and renewable forms of energy, of carbon dioxide sequestration technologies and of advanced and innovative environmentally sound technologies: (v) Progressive reduction or phasing out of market imperfections, fiscal incentives, tax and duty exemptions and subsidies in all greenhouse gas emitting sectors that run counter to the objective of the Convention and (vi) Encouragement of appropriate reforms in relevant sectors aimed at promoting policies and measures which limit or reduce emissions of greenhouse gases not controlled by the Montreal Protocol: (vii) Measures to limit and/or reduce emissions of greenhouse gases not controlled by the Montreal Protocol in the transport sector. Forests use CO 2 in their growth. Applied classification is for specific purpose. Some other gases such as nitric oxide (NO)and carbon monoxide (CO) easily react with GHGs and affectWorld Climate and Climate Change class 11 Notes Geography their concentration in the atmosphere. Tropical Wet and Dry Climate (Aw) Tropical wet and dry climate occurs north and south of Af type climate regions. The tropical group is divided into three types, namely (i) Af- Tropical wet climate; (ii) Am – Tropical monsoon climate; (iii) Aw- Tropical wet and dry climate. The highest shade temperature of 58° C was recorded at Al Aziziyah, Libya on 13 September 1922. United Nations scientists have told us time and time again that we must curb greenhouse gas emissions to slow climate change. The term greenhouse is derived from the analogy to a greenhouse used in cold areas for preserving heat. They move as icebergs that float in the Arctic and Antarctic waters. The chlorofluorocarbons(CFCs) are highly effective. This unit introduces students to the geoscience behind the challenge of anthropogenic climate change. Humid Subtropical (Cfa) Climate Humid subtropical climate lies on the eastern parts of the continent in subtropical latitudes. D. An another astronomical theory is Millankovitch oscillations, which infer cycles in the variations in the earth’s orbital characteristics around the sun, the wobbling of the earth and the changes in the earth’s axial tilt. International efforts have been initiated for reducing the emission of GHGs into the atmosphere. The snow and ice get accumulated and the mounting pressure causes the deformation of the ice sheets and they break. In this region the air masses are generally unstable and cause rainfall throughout the year. Download CBSE class 11th revision notes for Chapter 12  World Climate and Climate Change class 11 Notes Geography in PDF format for free. myCBSEguide provides sample papers with solution, test papers for chapter-wise practice, NCERT solutions, NCERT Exemplar solutions, quick revision notes for ready reference, CBSE guess papers and CBSE important question papers. The CFCs which drift into the stratosphere destroy the ozone. Tropical wet climate is found near the equator. Events like flooding, drought, storms, and extreme temperatures caused by climate change can result in increased poverty, loss of assets, and in turn, increased hunger (FAO et. It’s too late to tackle climate change “incrementally,” the researchers write (Lenton cowrote the paper with Simon Sharpe, a deputy director in the U.K. Rise in the sea level due to melting of glaciers and ice-caps and thermal expansion of the sea may inundate large parts of the coastal area and islands, leading to social problems. There is vertical zonation of layering of climatic types with elevation in the mountain environment. 3. After 1940, the rate of increase in temperature slowed down. The climatic groups are subdivided into types, designated by small letters, based on seasonality of precipitation and temperature characteristics. The largest concentration of GHGs in the atmosphere is carbon dioxide. These aerosols remain in the atmosphere for a considerable period of time reducing the sun’s radiation reaching the Earth’s surface. A greenhouse is made up of glass. Variability in climate occurs all the time. Maximum temperature in the summer is very high. 5. In between, there was a slight cooling, which was more marked in the Northern Hemisphere. The world cannot afford that. Climate Change is the defining issue of our time and we are at a defining moment. Age is also associated with views of climate change in some countries. The 2020 edition of the United Nations World Water Development Report (UN WWDR 2020) entitled ‘Water and Climate Change’ aims at helping the water community to tackle the challenges of climate change and informing the climate change community about the opportunities that improved water management offers in terms of adaptation and mitigation. February 27, 2019 When most people think about the effects of climate change, they envisage the polar caps melting. Historical records of crop yield or crop failures, of floods and migration of people, tell about the effects of changing climate. %PDF-1.5 At low latitudes, from 15 – 30% they occur in the area of subtropical high where subsidence and inversion of temperature do not produce rainfall. no dry season and mild winter (Cfa); (iv) Marine west coast climate(Cfb). The most important one is the Kyoto protocol proclaimed in 1997. had higher rainfall. Significant amount of rainfall occurs in every month of the year as thunder showers in the afternoon. He selected certain values of temperature and precipitation and related them to the distribution of vegetation and used these values for classifying the climates. Large depletion of ozone occurs over Antarctica. It borders with dry climate on the western part of the continent and Cf or Cw on the eastern part. World leaders have breathed an audible sigh of relief that the United States under President Joe Biden is rejoining the global effort to curb climate change, a cause that his predecessor had shunned Pole ward summer temperatures are lower and winter temperatures are extremely low with many locations experiencing below freezing point temperatures for up to seven months in a year. One of the major concerns of the world today is global warming. The year 1998 was the warmest year, probably not only for the 20th century but also for the whole millennium. Marine West Coast Climate (Cfb) Marine west coast climate is located poleward from the Mediterranean climate on the west coast of north the continents. and promotion, development and increased use of. Koeppen recognized five major climatic groups, four of them are based on temperature and one on precipitation. The annual and diurnal ranges of temperature are also high. Sunspots are dark and cooler patches on the sun which increase and decrease in a cyclical manner. The depletion of ozone concentration in the stratosphere is called the ozone hole. The atmosphere also transmits the incoming solar radiation but absorbs the vast majority of long wave radiation emitted upwards by the earth’s surface. Heavy rainfall occurs mostly in summer. The present inter-glacial period started 10,000 years ago. They are empirical, genetic and applied. The climate is similar to Aw climate except that the temperature in winter is warm. It is an empirical classification based on mean annual and mean monthly temperature and precipitation data. The globally averaged annual mean temperature at the end of the 20th century was about 0.6°C above that recorded at the end of the 19th century. The mean temperature in summer months ranges from 15°-20°C and in winter 4°-10°C. A 2016 study by the government's Environment and Climate Change Canada showed the average winter temperature across the country has risen by almost 6 degrees Fahrenheit over the past 70 years. During summer, the tundra regions have very long duration of day light. polar Climates (E) Polar climates exist poleward beyond 70°latitude. endobj myCBSEguide | CBSE Papers & NCERT Solutions. Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. The glass which is transparent to incoming short wave solar radiation is opaque to outgoing long wave radiation. © 2021 myCBSEguide | CBSE Papers & NCERT Solutions, India – Location class 11 Notes Geography, Structure and Physiography class 11 Notes Geography, Climate Vegetations and Soil class 11 Notes Geography, Natural Vegetation class 11 Notes Geography, Geography as a Discipline class 11 Notes Geography, Interior of the Earth class 11 Notes Geography, Distribution of Oceans and Continent class 11 Notes Geography, Minerals and Rocks class 11 Notes Geography, Geomorphic Processes class 11 Notes Geography, Landforms and their Evolution class 11 Notes Geography, Solar Radiation, Heat Balance and Temperature class 11 Notes Geography, Atmospheric Circulation and Weather System class 11 Notes Geography, Water in the Atmosphere class 11 Notes Geography, Movements of Ocean Water class 11 Notes Geography, Life on the Earth class 11 Notes Geography, Biodiversity and Conservation class 11 Notes Geography, Natural Hazards and Disasters class 11 Notes Geography, The Origin and Evolution of the Earth class 11 Notes Geography, Life on the Earth Class 11 Notes Geography, Solar Radiation Heat Balance and Temperature class 11 Notes Geography, Class 10 Science Sample Paper 2021 (Solved). The development of pronounced winter anticyclone and its weakening in summer sets in monsoon like reversal of wind in this region. Monthly average temperature in summer is around 25 C and in winter below 10 C. The annual precipitation ranges between 3~5~r90~cm~. Another important point to be noted is that the more time the GHG molecule remains in the atmosphere, the longer it will take for earth’s atmospheric system to recover from any change brought about by the latter. World Climate and Climate Change class 11 Notes Geography. Hence, the climate is characterised by hot, dry summer and mild, rainy winter. They are further subdivided as subtropical steppe (BSh) and subtropical desert (BWh) at latitudes from 15° – 35° and mid-latitude steppe (BSk) and mid-latitude desert (BWk) at latitudes between 35° – 60°. m – monsoon climate, w- winter dry season and s – summer dry season. Politics & Policy A Year of Climate Change Evidence: Notes from a Science Reporter’s Journal 2018 was filled with new evidence and warnings of the high risks and costs of climate change. Tropical humid climates exist between Tropic of Cancer and Tropic of Capricorn. The period 3,0001,700 B.C. Temperature is high throughout the year and diurnal ranges of temperature are the greatest in the dry season. 2. Polar climates consist of two types: (i) Tundra (ET); Cn| Ice Cap (EF). This is another cause for serious concern for the world community. KOEPPEN’ S SCHEME OF CLASSIFICATION OF CLIMATE Koeppen. Archaeological findings show that the Rajasthan desert experienced wet and cool climate around 8,000 B.C. (GHGs) The primary GHGs of concern today are carbondioxide (C02), and ozone(O3). Loosely defined, climate is the average weather at a distinct place that incorporates temperature, precipitation, and … … This chapter deals with The world climate can be studied by organizing information and data on climate and synthesizing them in smaller units for easy understanding, description and analysis. LONDON, Jan 13 (Thomson Reuters Foundation) - Accelerating biodiversity loss, climate change and over-consumption are swiftly pushing human societies toward a "ghastly future" of growing hunger, political division and societal breakdown, leading scientists said on Wednesday. The winters are cold and snowy. The greatest warming of the 20th century was during the two periods, 1901 -44 and 1977-99. Mean monthly temperature in summer is around 27°C, and in winter it varies from 5 -12 C. The daily range of temperature is small. The wet season is shorter and the dry season is longer with the drought being more severe. The best app for CBSE students now provides   World Climate and Climate Change class 11 Notes Geography latest chapter wise notes for quick preparation of CBSE exams and school-based annual examinations. Three broad approaches have been adopted for classifying climate. 2 0 obj As climate change worsens, dangerous weather events are becoming more frequent or severe in the United States and around the globe. Yet, these findings are not statistically significant. 1. Dry Climates: B Dry climates are characterized by very low rainfall that is not adequate for the growth of plants. The annual average near-surface air temperature of the world is approximately 14°C. Is there any Free Test Series for NEET 2021? This area receives very little precipitation. The annual ranges of temperature are large. They occur in eastern United States of America, southern and eastern China, southern Japan, northeastern Argentina, coastal south Africa and eastern coast of Australia. Cold Climate with Dry Winters (Dew) Cold climate with dry winter occurs mainly over North eastern Asia. The temperature is uniformly high and the annual range of temperature is negligible. The sun being overhead throughout the year and the presence of Inter Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) make the climate hot and humid. In middle latitudes, from 35 – 60 north and south of equator, they are confined to the interior of continents where maritime-humid winds do not reach and to areas often surrounded by mountains. Thunderstorms in summer and frontal precipitation in winter are common. In Canada, for example, 72% of women consider climate change a major threat, compared with 59% of men. The causes for climate change are many. Highland Climates (H) Highland climates are governed by topography. Dry conditions since then. Subtropical Steppe (BSh) and Subtropical Desert (BWh) Climates Subtropical steppe (BSH) and subtropical desert (BWh) have common precipitation and temperature characteristics. The processes that warm the atmosphere are often collectively referred to as the greenhouse effect. Europe witnessed “Little Ice Age” from 1550 to about 1850. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 1. Due to the presence of greenhouse gases, the atmosphere is behaving like a greenhouse. Tundra Climate (ET) The tundra climate (ET) is so called after the types of vegetation, like low growing mosses, lichens and flowering plants. Winter is dry. India also witnessed alternate wet and dry periods. dry in winter and hot in summer (Cwa); (ii) Mediterranean (Cs); (iii) Humid subtropical, i.e. The revision notes help you revise the whole chapter in minutes. These are the   World Climate and Climate Change class 11 Notes Geography prepared by team of expert teachers. Fog is common in coastal deserts bordering cold currents. Table 12.2: Climate Types According to Koeppen. 3. (iii) The severity of winter is more pronounced in higher latitudes. 6. E. All these alter the amount of insolation received from the sun, which in turn, might have a bearing on the climate. On the western margin of the continents, adjoining the cold current, particularly over the west coast of SouthX America, they extend more equator wards and occur on the coast land. Cold Climate with Humid Winters (Df) Cold climate with humid winter occurs pole ward of marine west coast climate and mid latitude steppe. The main areas are: Northwestern Europe, west coast of North America, north of California, southern Chile, southeastern Australia and New Zealand. ­ Changes in the Earths orbit, the energy received from the Sun and the amount of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere can all cause climate change. Current weather extremes already affect millions of people, putting food and water security at risk, and threatening agricultural supply chains and many coastal cities. Over each of these two periods, global temperatures rose by about 0.4°C. The annual and daily ranges of temperature are small. The frost free season is short. <>/Font<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text/ImageB/ImageC/ImageI] >>/MediaBox[ 0 0 595.32 841.92] /Contents 4 0 R/Group<>/Tabs/S/StructParents 0>> Sample Paper all are made available through the best app for CBSE students and myCBSEguide website. Plateau Station Antarctica ,79°S, portray this climate. Kyoto protocol bounds the 35 industrialized countries to reduce their emissions by the year 2012 to 5 per cent less than the levels prevalent in the year 1990. F. Volcanism is considered as another cause for climate change. It is rising at about 0.5 percent annually. These climates cover a very large area of the planet extending over large latitudes from 15 – 60 north and south of the equator. Hear what Vivaldi’s ‘Four Seasons’ would sound like in a post-climate-change world. In the geological past, the earth was warm some 500-300 million years ago, through the Cambrian, Ordovician and Silurian periods. World leaders breathed an audible sigh of relief that the United States under President Joe Biden is rejoining the global effort to curb climate change, a cause that his predecessor had shunned. The most important anthropogenic effect on the climate is the increasing trend in concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere which is likely to cause global warming. <>>> ‘ This is the region of permafrost where the sub soil is permanently frozen. Precipitation varies greatly from 50-250cm. Located in the transition zone between humid and dry climates, subtropical steppe receives slightly more rainfall than the desert, adequate enough for the growth of sparse grasslands. Precipitation occurs in summer. endobj The annual averages of precipitation vary from 75-150 cm. Most do not consider the effects climate change will have on agriculture, and, as a result, world hunger. The weather changes are abrupt and short. The type of climate we experience now might be prevailing over the last 10,000 years with minor and occasionally wide fluctuations.

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