Supplementary Figure S2. Forlano PM, Deitcher DL, Myers DA, Bass AH. They don't need a male to be present to develop eggs. Male danios are normally skinnier than their female counterparts, and their colours are usually more vibrant. Then the male will "wrap" around the female and she releases her eggs. All primers were designed to span across intron-exon boundaries to eliminate genomic DNA amplification. I have always used plants for this. The RPKM data were transformed by adding a constant (1.0) and then normalized using a quantile normalization. Male brains at 40 dpf were significantly enriched in immune response, cytoskeleton remodeling, lipid metabolism regulation, and apoptosis pathways (Supplementary Table S3). The silvery-white females have a rounder, plumper body with a white belly and silver stripes instead of gold. Finches love to fly so the taller and bigger your cage is the happier your finch will be. The Rosy Danios are also known as Purple Passion Danio, Rose Danio, and Purple Haze Danio. Spotted Danio, Pearl Danio, Zebra Danio, Harlequin Rasbora: Habitat Type: Shallow ponds: Males vs. Furthermore, it also stimulated gnrh3 upregulated expression compared to 40 dpf male zebrafish. Roughly 300-400 eggs are produced and hatch within two days. If the females have started to produce roe (eggs), they’ll look chubbier. Male Zebra Danios are generally more torpedo shaped, while females tend to have a larger belly. We highlight the expression patterns of several of these genes and suggest possible roles in the production of male and female sexual behavior in zebrafish. Generally speaking, the female danios have rounder and deeper body shapes compared to the males regardless of whether they are carrying roe or not. We observed the EGFP expression of each zebrafish under a Leica M205 FA Fluorescence stereo microscope to determine the gonadal sex of each fish and sex ratios for each treatment group. Transcripts with RPKM value greater than or equal to 5.0 (RPKM ≥ 5.0) were regarded as reliably expressed. Elevated 11-ketotestosterone levels are associated with increased territorial and male reproductive behaviors during social ascent in male Astatotilapia burtoni . (B) Venn diagram of numbers of genes differentially expressed between MT-treated brains (40MTB) and control male brains (40CMB) overlapped with genes differentially expressed between MT- treated brains (40MTB) and control female brains (40CFB) at 40 dpf. Department of Anatomy, University of Otago, Dunedin, Otago, New Zealand. Wang X, Bartfai R, Sleptsova-Freidrich I, Orban L. Baggerly KA, Deng L, Morris JS, Aldaz CM. Transcripts with RPKM value greater than or equal to 1.0 (RPKM ≥ 1.0) were regarded as expressed. After the rain season the fish gets back into riv… No significant signal was observed for the no template controls for any gene of interest or reference gene. Although MT treatment produced similar numbers of brain transcriptomic responses in male and female zebrafish at 40 dpf, it had less of an impact on male brain gene expression than female brains at 60 dpf. If you are looking for sure shot ways to find out whether your Zebra danios are male or female, dive in to get some helpful answers. Differences Between Males and Female Zebra Finches. It's true that female danios are deeper bodied, but right after you purchase them at the store, there's really no way to tell if the smaller fish is simply younger. As such, it is unlikely that the sex differences in gene expression we observed between male and female zebrafish brains are due to differences in sex chromosome complements. These striped 3-inch long schoolers make a great addition to a community tank and are very popular options for betta sororities. TaqMan qPCR reactions were performed in triplicate. We also compared dio2 expression between MT-treated and control male and female brains using individual brain samples (n = 3) (Figure 3, Supplementary Figure S2). These species can live for 4 years and must be kept along with smaller fishes. Prostaglandin E synthase is responsible for production of PGE2, a precursor of prostaglandin F2α. Commonly, gravid females have rounder bodies with large bellies compared to males, and this distinguishing feature is enough to differentiate them. Put one female and two male into the tank in the evening and if possible put the volume near the window. In this picture from www.bionalogy.comthe fish on the top is a female, the fish on the bottom is a male. Prostaglandin reductase 1 catalyzes the reduction of keto-prostaglandins. The male Pearl Danios are more colorful, smaller and slimmer than the female ones. Trimmed reads from each pool were mapped and aligned to the Zebrafish Zv9 reference sequence (ftp://ftp.ensembl.org/pub/current_fasta/danio_rerio/dna/) from the ENSEMBL database. The Zebra Danio is a rather popular fish among the hobbyists particularly the beginners. Of the 1554 transcripts differentially expressed in MT-treated brains compared to control female brains at 40 dpf (Table 2), 867 were upregulated and 687 were downregulated in MT-treated brains (Table 2). Roughly 300-400 eggs are produced and hatch within two days. There was also an overabundance of genes involved in neuronal nicotine signaling and developmental pathways in 60 dpf male brains (Supplementary Table S4). Healthy embryos were selected and transferred into 4 L tanks containing 3.5 L of 0.5% salt dissolved in system water at a density of 100 embryos per tank. The top 10 GeneGo pathways enriched among genes significantly expressed between 60 dpf MT-treated male brains and 60 dpf control female brains. Taqman gene expression assays utilized for qPCR validation. About your female: what do you mean by not swimming actively? I had my female Betta in with 5 Zebra Danios, two are long-finned. What sex differences there are in the expression profiles of teleost brains may be mediated primarily by the influences of gonadal hormones [47, 52, 53]. When the scared fish see zebra danios swimming around with ease, they become more comfortable with the environment and their stress level falls. Uchida H, Ogawa S, Harada M, Matushita M, Iwata M, Sakuma Y, Parhar IS. Furthermore, eef1a1l1 gave the highest average expression stability values with the geNorm algorithm . Or are they both females? Glofish shark in "Galactic Purple" Despite the speculation of aquarium enthusiasts that the eggs of the fluorescent fish were pressure treated to make them infertile, it has been found some GloFish are indeed fertile and will reproduce in a captive environment. Have you noticed the male "claiming territory"? High levels of aromatizable androgens, estrogens, and endocrine disrupting compounds can stimulate cyp19a1b expression via estrogen receptors [30, 109, 110, 112–119]. Each reaction (20 μl total volume) contained 10 μl of TaqMan Universal Master Mix II, 1 μl of TaqMan Gene Expression Assay, 1 μl of template cDNA (50 ng/μl), and MilliQ water. The genetic sex of juvenile zebrafish is unknown during initiation of MT treatment. Belanger RM, Pachkowski MD, Stacey NE. Its ease of ... Pheromonal regulation of reproductive success in female zebra fish: female suppression and male enhancement, Anim Behav, 2006, vol. The abundance of transcripts was normalized using the reads per kilobase per million mapped reads (RPKM) method to correct for differences in transcript length and library size to enable comparisons across libraries. They retain a fusiform and horizontally compressed body which is adorned by horizontal blue lines. Generally speaking, the female danios are slightly fatter than the males regardless of whether they are carrying roe or not. The top 10 GeneGo pathways enriched among genes significantly differentially expressed between 40 dpf MT-treated male brains and 40 dpf control male brains. The top 10 GeneGo pathways enriched among genes significantly expressed between 60 dpf MT-treated male brains and 60 dpf control male brains. Unlike Zebra Danios, male and female GloFish are both virtually the same colour, and so they must be differentiated by body shape. Dio2 has been implicated in control of seasonal reproduction in birds . Sex dimorphic gene expression in developing teleost brains and the molecular basis for androgen-induced behavioral masculinization are poorly understood. CFB, control female brains. danios zebra-danios. Interestingly, a recent study demonstrated that genetic knockout of gnrh3 in zebrafish had no significant effect on reproductive behavior . A breeding pair should be placed in a breeding aquarium with fine-leaved plants for them to spawn over. Environmental and hormonal factors can influence sex-specific behavior. Cyp11c1 expression, which is required for androgen production, is high in differentiated zebrafish testes . Cholesterols are the precursors for production of androgens and estrogens; thus, their upregulation suggests possible links between locally synthesized steroid hormones and activation of sexual behavior in zebrafish. I have no way of telling which finch is the female or male they are both white zebra finches. Since both the male and female counterparts look almost similar, however, if the fish under question turns out to be male, it could be facing some serious health issues. There was considerable overlap in the sets of genes differentially expressed in response to MT between male and female brains. The juvenile zebrafish brains were dissected and placed into aliquots of RNAlater (Invitrogen), RLT lysis buffer from an RNeasy Mini kit (Qiagen) or RA1 lysis buffer from a Nucleospin RNA II kit (Macherey-Nagel) and stored at –80°C for subsequent RNA isolation. Males are a bit smaller and more slender than females. Search ADS Grunwald. Member. The zebra fish, Danio rerio, is a group-spawning, egg-scattering member of the Cyprinid family found throughout southern Asia . Males usually have slender as well as smaller bodies compared to females. How can I distinguish a male zebra danio from a female one? The TaqMan Gene Expression Assay for each gene of interest (Applied Biosystems) was used in combination with the TaqMan Universal Master Mix II with UNG (Applied Biosystems) as recommended by the manufacturer. A full list of 15,617 probesets with their corresponding p-values and Gene Ontology (GO) annotations are given in Additional file 1.In the same file, the probesets that were significant for female vs. male (FvsM), young vs. old (YvsO) and age by gender (AbyG) comparisons can be found. C-fos elevation in brain regions important for pheromone detection is closely linked to performance of male reproductive behavior in mice, gerbils, and birds [155–158]. Gnrh2 and dio2 were among the genes upregulated in 40 dpf MT-treated brains relative to 40 dpf female brains (Supplementary Spreadsheet S2). However, if there are no males in the tank, the females can become egg bound and remain fat for the rest of their life. Roughly 300-400 eggs are produced and hatch within two days. If the females have started to produce roe (eggs), they’ll look chubbier. It is a suitable candidate as a key regulator of zebrafish male sexual behavior. Ogawa S, Ng KW, Xue X, Ramadasan PN, Sivalingam M, Li S, Levavi-Sivan B, Lin H, Liu X, Parhar IS. The relationships between gnrh2 and gnrh3 and sexual behavior in teleost fish have not been fully elucidated. I know that females are supposed to be fatter and less brightly coloured but the zebra danio that I suspect is female is the most brightly coloured out of the three I have (I'm getting more later). Prostaglandin F2α is important for female sexual behavior in cichlids [57, 148, 149], goldfish [147, 150–152], paradise fish (Macropodus opercularis) , and peacock blenny . In several cyprinids, MT treatment increased olfactory responsiveness to prostaglandin in juvenile and female fish to levels similar to that of adult males [142, 162]. 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