For many poor nations, future growth and development will be the direct result of reducing gender inequality in education. He said that researchers and policy makers also need to understand what aspects of certain contexts are transferable to other contexts. Therefore, school dropout by adolescent girls could provide an opportune moment for intervention. Fundamentally, a lack of education disempowers women and girls in ways that deprive them of their basic rights. Gender roles are passed down from generation to generation and differ from place to place. Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. The socioeconomic impact of female education constitutes a significant area of research within international development.Increases in the amount of female education in regions tends to correlate with high levels of development. She explained that her work with Schott used an instrumental variables approach to account for endogeneity in examining the relationship between education and adolescent motherhood in Ethiopia, India, Peru, and Vietnam (see Figure 2). These results suggest the importance of building some sort of capital if effects of cash transfers are to be sustained after programs end, she noted. Baird also found large effects of the conditional cash transfer program on marriage and pregnancy for girls who were out of school at baseline: this outcome resulted from the very large effects on education in this group. But there is another more immediate effect of the lack of sanitation on Brazilian women who are students: sanitation interferes with the chances of progression to higher education and the qualification of young women who have recently entered the labor market. Education was also associated with increased reading and Internet use and more diverse friendship networks. Through interviews with Indian girls and their parents, Desai found that education did not have an effect on their attitudes about gender roles. This workshop on girls’ education in developing contexts builds on that earlier work, using rich longitudinal data that were not available 10 years ago, to explore causal relationships and pathways between educational enrollment, attainment, and quality on the timing of transitions to marriage and parenthood. That is, just as education may improve reproductive health outcomes, so may experiencing early reproductive events disrupt education, in particular, academic skills: see Figure 3. Moreover, Mensch noted, there is a shortage of rigorous quantitative studies investigating the effect of school-related gender-based violence on educational outcomes. Discuss the policy and program implications of the research on girls’ education. Education helps fight this problem and make a society see the path of progress. Several participants expressed curiosity that education only affected early fertility and not the whole reproductive life span. By Staff Writer Last Updated Apr 5, 2020 6:49:02 PM ET. PIP: By age 18, according to the 1982 National Survey of Family Growth, 68% of US 15-19-year-old women have received formal instruction about pregnancy and contraceptive methods, 16% have had instruction about pregnancy only, and another 16% have received neither type of education. Malala Yousafzai, the Pakistani activist for women’s education, was only 15 when a member of the Taliban boarded her school bus and shot her in the head. Kirsten Sampson Snyder, National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine, served as review coordinator. doi: https://doi.org/10.17226/24895. Erin Murphy-Graham and Alison Cohen (Graduate School of Education, University of California, Berkeley) discussed using mixed-methods longitudinal work to explore school quality in Honduras. For starters, many women that are uneducated are more susceptible to early marriages usually against their will (in some cases girls as young as eight or ten). In many cases, religious beliefs eliminate the need for girls to attend schools. gives room for oppression, deceit causes diffidence i.e, a … Women and girls account for nearly two-thirds of the chronically hungry. Lack of Adequate Number of Female Teachers: Lack of female teachers is another potential barrier to girls’ education. Caudillo’s findings indicate that the socially constructed age within a school cohort has important implications for the transition to adulthood among teenage girls in Mexico. Required fields are marked *. Blanc pointed out that in the past the field did not pay much attention to context or what it means to be educated in a certain place at a certain time. Think of the blighted buildings and abandoned homes that could be restored and put to good use. Desai pointed out that the social networks of schools themselves may be part of the mechanisms that lead to improved learning. The statements made are those of the rapporteur or individual meeting participants and do not necessarily represent the views of all meeting participants; the planning committee; the Committee on Population; or the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. Psaki noted that her research used data from two studies—the Malawi Schooling and Adolescent Study and the Adolescent Girls’ Empowerment Program in Zambia—and fixed-effects models that control for stable observed and unobserved characteristics, to study early marriage and childbearing and loss of literacy by adolescent girls in these settings. Another barrier to female education in India is the lack of female teachers. She used the Madagascar Life Course Transition of Young Adults Survey, a longitudinal dataset that captures the transition from adolescence to adulthood of a cohort aged 21 to 23 in 2012, first interviewed in 2004. CLARIFYING PATHWAYS AND DELINEATING MECHANISMS Perhaps, moving forward, education systems should further explore entrepreneurial pathways or skills training to provide direct links between education and employment. Barbara Mensch (Population Council) discussed research in three programmatic areas: school-related violence, sanitation facilities at schools, and menstrual hygiene management. tems Analysis) expanded the discussion of education and demographic behavior by exploring the link among structural adjustment programs, educational discontinuities, and stalled fertility in sub-Saharan Africa. Some workshop participants expressed interest in understanding what dimensions of context-specific interventions are critical to consider. For additional information regarding the meeting, visit http://nas.edu/EffectsofGirlsEducation. She suggested that for better measures and dimensions of learning, researchers need to rely on the education community. The World’s Women 2015 report published by the United Nations says women make up two-thirds of the world’s illiterate adults. This report was focused on changing transitions to adulthood in developing countries in the context of rapid globalization. Murphy-Graham discussed the emergence of a theme around the “dosage” of education, which is particularly salient around the transition to adulthood. Those roles can be decidedly inflexible, depending on when and where a girl is born. She used data from the 2010 DHS from Malawi and the 2011 DHS from. This work begins with the idea that the average age in a school cohort creates a socially constructed age for all students in that cohort. Suggested citation: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. REVIEWERS: To ensure that it meets institutional standards for quality and objectivity, this Proceedings of a Workshop—in Brief was reviewed by Ann Biddlecom, International Research, Guttmacher Institute; Ann K. Blanc, Social and Behavioral Science Research, Population Council; Ruth Dixon-Mueller, Independent consultant, Alameda, CA; and Monica J. Lack of education is associated with a lower proclivity to altruistic behaviors, and it curtails women’s voice and agency in the household, at work and in institutions. However, for middle-level quality, it is difficult to detect a quality effect. Over and over again, the statistics show that countries with the largest disparities between the number of girls in school compared to the number of boys in school tend to have weaker economies, slower economic growth, and higher rates of poverty. Another barrier to female education in India is the lack of female teachers. And that doesn't just affect women — … In some cultures, poor families charge the daughters with the responsibility (or gender role) of becoming child laborers, going out to earn supplemental income for the family while the son attends school or learns a trade. Thus, Caudillo hypothesized that completing lower secondary (generally 3 years after primary school) can have offsetting effects on the timing of family-related transitions among young-for-grade girls. As India is a gender segregated society, it is a very important factor in the low female literacy rate in India. Several workshop participants discussed the benefits of additional education in contexts with limited labor market options for women. They considered whether different types of schooling have significant effects on demographic outcomes: for example, are marriage and childbirth predictors of dropping out of school and is school quality part of this pathway. Your email address will not be published. Effects of the Lack of Education. Many issues arise in a community due to a lack of education. What would your city and state look like if half the poor people where you live suddenly had the tools to lift themselves out of poverty? Healthcare of the general population is a major reason education is important. © 2021 National Academy of Sciences. She found. She described an ongoing randomized controlled trial by the Population Council that is evaluating a school-based intervention in Kenya that includes both distribution of sanitary pads and reproductive health education. Mensch also summarized the research on menstrual hygiene management and educational outcomes, such as absenteeism and learning. His work has explored the effects of school quality on learning outcomes, focusing on effectively measuring both learning and school quality. As Nelson Mandela said, “Education is the most powerful weapon which you can use to change the world.” Negative Effects of Education • Moral Impact Education is worsening the level of moral values a child has. Gretchen Donehower (Center on the Economics and Demography of Aging, University of California, Berkeley) discussed whether girls face a disadvantage in time spent on education in comparison with boys and whether unpaid care work, mainly housework and taking care of younger siblings, plays a part. Not a MyNAP member yet? Cynthia Lloyd (independent consultant) reflected on how far the field of girls’ education has come since the publication of the National Academies’ Growing Up Global report (2005). Poor Health. The lack of education has different consequences depending upon whether the person is lacking a grade school, high school or college education. Schott provided a rich set of descriptive statistics that set the scene on the longitudinal samples from the Young Lives Study. For many women, if they had gotten just one additional year of school as children, it would have increased their income by as much as 20 percent as adults. Jere Behrman (University of Pennsylvania) responded that no one really knows what school quality means. The magnitude of this effect on the test scores was comparable to the effect of having completed secondary school. While the program was ongoing, the conditional cash transfer intervention improved education outcomes—both for girls in school and out of school when the program started. Letícia Marteleto (Department of Sociology, University of Texas at Austin) also spoke on reverse causality, describing her research on the effects of adolescent childbearing on women’s educational outcomes. some evidence to support the hypothesis that adolescent girls who gave birth then show a subsequent deterioration in literacy, in comparison with girls who do not give birth. Show this book's table of contents, where you can jump to any chapter by name. However, education was associated with greater self-confidence and the ability to handle familial situations. Overall, Mensch said, although assertions abound regarding the detrimental effects of school-related gender-based violence, WASH, and inadequate menstrual hygiene management on educational outcomes, rigorous quantitative evidence for such effects is limited or nonexistent. ture), academic and occupational aspirations (such as academic skills and employment preferences), and personal strength (such as self-confidence and the ability to negotiate). She found that early childbearing has a causal effect on young women’s human capital in Madagascar. Union formation has a similar negative effect. University of Wisconsin–Madison) discussed her research on schooling expansion, free primary education, and the timing of first marriage in Ethiopia, Malawi, and Uganda. In the discussion, Caudillo suggested that, according to this theory, the opposite results may hold for the oldest girls in the classroom, since socially constructed age is a tendency toward the mean age of the cohort in a particular grade. Primary … Especially in poor developing countries, educational inequality is quite prevalent. Alternatively, it may be viewed Education Decreases Poverty. Goujon agreed that the evidence suggests a tempo effect with women preponing their fertility. The unconditional cash transfer program—which was only targeted at girls who were in school at baseline—had relatively small effects on education, but they led to large reductions in early marriage and pregnancy. The children leave school without having acquired the basics, which greatly impedes the social and economic development of these countries. In countries where there is no public education system, schools may be too costly, or too far away to send girls. It is harder for girls to find someone to Your email address will not be published. Sandefur found that there is huge variation in school quality in low- and lower-middle-income countries, and the learning outcome returns from girls’ education partly depends on quality. Through a multilevel analysis of couples nested in regions, Behrman found that regional declines in hypergamy were associated with increases in intimate partner violence, but there were no associations between regional declines in hypergamy and women’s participation in decision making and control over reproductive health. Monica Grant (Department of Sociology. However, the causal pathways between education and demographic outcomes are not well understood. ANN K. BLANC (Chair), Population Council; JERE R. BEHRMAN, University of Pennsylvania; CYNTHIA B. LLOYD, Independent Consultant. 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